segunda-feira, 31 de agosto de 2009
Nobody's Perfect - Talkers and Thinkers
Ninguém é perfeito. Especialmente quando se trata dos perfect tenses. Então vamos sobrevoar seus usos mais comuns.
1. Present Perfect
Talk about something that has happened, something that has been completed.
Focus on the event. "When" is not important.
Talk about an event (or events) which has (or have) happened within a period of time which hasn't finished yet.
Talk about somebody's life experience.
(Note: Sometimes native speakers use simple past here. Especially Americans.)
A: Have you done your homework yet?
B: No, I haven't. But I've already started it.
A: My car is looking good now, isn't it?
B: It really is! Have you washed it?
A: Somebody has eaten the last slice of pizza.
B: It wasn't me. I promise.
A: Are you done with your test?
B: No, I haven't finished it yet.
A: Have you ever been to Europe?
B: No, I haven't been there yet. But I'd love to. Actually, I've been saving some money and I might be able to go there next year.
A: Have you ever owned a Japanese car?
B: No, but I've heard they're pretty reliable.
A: Have you ever tried Thai food?
B: No, I haven't. Is it any good?
A: Have you seen your mother this week?
B: No, I'm going to have dinner with her on Saturday, though.
A: I haven't had a break since I got here. I'm totally worn out!
B: Let's take 5, then. I need a cigarette anyway.
A: This is the first time I've driven out of town. I'm so excited.
B: And you're doing a great job. Now, will you please keep your eyes on the road?
2. Present Perfect Continuous
Talk about events that started in the past but continue up to the present, events that are not complete, events that are in progress.
Sometimes people use it to talk about an event which had been happening and just stopped.
A: Where have you been? I've been looking for you all over!
B: I was in the restroom. Chill out!
A: God! I need a break.
B: You certainly do! You've been working too much recently.
A: I've been having trouble with this new Windows Vista.
B: Who hasn't?! Get a jacket and join the club.
A: Is it wet outside?
B: I'm afraid so. It's been raining.
A: Gee! You're all sweaty! Have you been running?
B: Wait! (sigh) Let me catch my breath and I'll tell you.
(Note: some verbs are not to be used with the progressive form - ING. e.g.: be, know, like, hate, have indicating possession, understand)
A: You can trust him. I've known him since we were little kids.
A: I've always liked that girl.
B: Well, she's always been really nice to you. Why don't you ask her out?
A: How long have you had this shirt?
B: I don't really know. Does it look too old?