1. Simple Present
- Use it to talk about regular events or permanent situations. (Routine, habits, free time activities)
Formula - verb (verb+s) - do/does subject verb - don't/doesn't verb
aff.: I work as a teacher. / He works as a teacher. / I live in NYC. / She studies English twice a week. / She finishes work at about 6pm.
int.: Do you work as a teacher? / Does he work as a teacher?
neg.: You don't work as a teacher. / She doesn't work as a teacher.
aff.: You are a teacher. / She's happy.
int.: Are you a teacher? / Is she tired?
neg.: You aren't a teacher. / She isn't hungry now.
Note: "have/has got" looks like Present Perfect but it's used to talk about the present.
I have a car. = I've got a car.
I don't have a cat. = I haven't got a cat.
Do you have a dog? = Have you got a dog?
I have to study hard. = I've got to study hard.
Do you have to work in the morning? = Have you got to work in the morning?
I don't have to work on weekends. = I haven't got to work on weekends.
2. Present Continuous
- Use it to talk about events that are in progress or temporary situations.
Formula - to be verb+ing
aff.: I'm working at the moment. / I'm living in NYC. / She's thinking about her job.
int.: Are you working at the moment? / Is he having dinner now?
neg.: I'm not working at the moment. / He's not working here anymore.
3. Simple Past
- Use it to talk about regular events in the past, events that happened at a specific time in the past, permanent situations in the past.
Formula: verb (in the past) - did subject verb - didn't verb
aff.: I did my homework last night.
neg.: I didn't do my homework last week.
int.: Did you do your homework last night?
5. Present Perfect
- Use it to talk about an event that happened in the past with an important consequence in the present. The event and the consequence are important. When the event happened exactly is not relevant.
- Formula: have/has verb (3rd column) - have/has subject verb (3rd column) - haven't/hasn't verb (3rd column)
aff.: I've brushed my teeth, now I can go to bed.
int.: Have you started the book?
neg.: I haven't taken a shower so I can't go to bed.
5.1. Present Perfect - Just
- Use it to talk about an event that has just happened, an event that has happened a very short time ago.
Aff.: I've just arrived from the gym. I need a shower. / Jane's just called. She wanted to know if we're going to meet her at the pub. / He's just travelled abroad. You won't be able to contact him soon.
5.2 - Present Perfect - Already
- Use it to talk about an event that has happened before you expected.
Aff.: Renan's already taken classes with Lu. / The students have already learned the present perfect. / The fireman has already saved the cat so you don't need to worry about it.
Int.: Have you already seen the new Spider Man movie? / Has the kid already finished his homework? / Has Duda already cooked dinner?
5.3 - Present Perfect - Yet
- Use it to talk about events that haven't happened until now, but you expected them to.
Int.: Has Duda cooked dinner yet? I'm really hungry! / Have you learned the simple present yet?
Neg.: We haven't arrived at the party yet so you can't talk to the birthday boy. / They haven't presented the results yet, but when they do, you'll be very pleased.
5.4 - Present Perfect - Ever
- Use it to talk about an event that has happened in your life (life experience).
Int.: Have you ever been to Paris? / Have you ever tried Russian food? / Have you ever gone skydiving?
- It's very common to answer these questions using already, yet, and never. And you can talk about one particular experience using simple past.
Yes, I've already been to Paris. I loved it. / I've never tried Russian food. / I haven't gone skydiving yet. I'm thinking about doing it next year.
- Present Perfect talk about events that have happened inside a certain period of time. This period of time could be a short one or a long one. It's usually not over or it has just finished.
"I've taken a shower." (Depending on your culture, the period is the day or the week.)
"I've had a flu shot." (This year)
"I've already been to Paris." (In my life)
5.5 - Present Perfect - How long...?
- Use it to talk about how long an event has happened. For this particular instance, you can also use (and it's probably better) Present Perfect Continuous when you have dynamic verbs (not stative verbs).
Aff.: I've lived here for 5 years. / She's had her car for a couple of months. / They've played football for only one week, but the coach is already very pleased by their performance.
Int.: How long have you worked for this company?